Name: Guignardia citricarpa Kiely. Anamorph: Phyllosticta citricarpa (McAlpine) Van der Aa (macroconidial state). Synonyms: Phoma citricarpa McAlpine. Citrus black spot is a fungal disease caused by Guignardia citricarpa. This Ascomycete fungus affects citrus plants throughout subtropical climates, causing a. Guignardia citricarpa Kiely, Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales () [MB#].

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Detection and Inspection Top of page Often black spot can be identified with considerable certainty if hard spot lesions with pycnidia are present. Lesions are small, sunken necrotic spots with light centre and a dark rim and may have a chlorotic halo.

citrus black spot (Guignardia citricarpa)

guihnardia When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Leaf lesions are uncommon on most citrus but may be more frequent on lemons. In culture, colonies of G. Guignardia citricarpa Kiely, Proc. Guignardia differs from Botryosphaeria in having unilocular ascomata, smaller ascospores and different anamorphs. Prolonged periods of wetness prevent pseudothecia formation since the leaves are rapidly colonized by competing saprobes.

If they prove successful for detection and identification of species using colonized plant material they should greatly speed diagnosis of black spot.

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The situation in Hong Kong, Swaziland and Nigeria is still unclear. However, now that black spot is well established in areas of southern South America, fruit losses may periodically be severe. There are three possible methods to hasten this decomposition.


The mature stage of freckle spot lesions, they are found on mature fruit and during post-harvest storage. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based method for confirmation of Guignardia citricarpa in citrus black spot lesions. They are small, round, and sunken. The spots turn brown with age. Germination and infection of citrus by ascospores of Guignardia citricarpa in relation to control of black spot.

Citrus black spot

Black spot disease in Rhodesia: Contact our curators Dr. Plant Disease, 69 Virulent spots are large, slightly sunken and spread irregularly over large areas of the mature fruit.

If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use. Cultural and morphological comparison on Phoma citricarpa and P. Guignardia citricarpa Kiely, Australasian Plant Pathology, 42 4: Retrieved 27 February Pairwise identification Polyphasic identification.

Most browsers are initially set up to accept cookies, since this is required by most website owners in order to access their sites. Distribution Table Top of page The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Articles with ‘species’ microformats Taxonbars desynced from Wikidata Taxonbars on possible non-taxon pages.

Hard spots are the most common lesions. The infection in leaves usually remains latent until the leaves drop, but leaf spots may be found on citricarpw leaves. Citrus black spot in the Northeast of Entre Rios: However, a specially convened panel of eminent scientists from Brazil, Argentina, the USA, Uruguay, Australia and South Africa concluded that there is no risk of transmission through fruit to European climates. More Spanish vitricarpa Dr. Gazeta do Agricultor, 26 They are similar in appearance to the freckle spot lesions, but under high humidity can cover the entire fruit.


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The importance of dispersal by fruit has been questioned since the fungus produces only water-dispersed conidia on symptomatic fruit Kotze, Click on the language titles to launch them. Leaf lesions are uncommon on most citrus but may be more frequent on lemons. Lesions are small, sunken necrotic spots with light centre and a dark rim tuignardia may have a chlorotic halo. Effect of packhouse procedures on the viability of Phyllosticta citricarpa, anamorph of the citrus black spot pathogen.

Postharvest Fruit from black spot-infested groves often bear quiescent infections that may later develop into black spot lesions in transport or at the final destination Hall, The cultural characteristics and morphology of Phoma citricarpa and P.

The widespread non-pathogenic strain is now designated Guignardia mangiferae and the ditricarpa black spot pathogen as Guignardia citricarpa. Fungicidal control of black spot and melanose on coastal Valencia oranges in Guigmardia South Wales. The anamorph of the black spot fungus was first described by McAlpine and designated Phoma citricarpa McAlpine.

Sweeter fruit with black spot.