Name: Guignardia citricarpa Kiely. Anamorph: Phyllosticta citricarpa (McAlpine) Van der Aa (macroconidial state). Synonyms: Phoma citricarpa McAlpine. Citrus black spot is a fungal disease caused by Guignardia citricarpa. This Ascomycete fungus affects citrus plants throughout subtropical climates, causing a. Guignardia citricarpa Kiely, Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales () [MB#].

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Leaf lesions are uncommon on most citrus but may be more frequent on lemons. The effects of fungicides and guignadria on the control of black spot of citrus Guignardia citricarpa. Thus infections probably occur throughout spring until at least mid-summer whenever conditions are favorable.

The black spot disease of citrus in South Africa. Freckle spots are orange to red, slightly depressed, mm in diameter and occur late in the season.

Chemical Control A number of fungicides such as copper products, dithiocarbamates, benzimidazoles and strobilurins are effective against black spot. Phyllosticta citricola Hori ex Hara, J. Phyllosticta citricola Hori, Engei no Tome: Diseases of fruit and foliage. Postharvest applications of fungicides are generally less effective in preventing symptom development Andrade et al.

Guignardia citricarpa is a plant pathogensome strains of which cause a leaf condition called black spot on citrus plants. Effect of climatic factors on the development and discharge of ascospores of the citrus black spot fungus.

Guignardia citricarpa (citrus black spot)

Compendium of Citrus Diseases. Ascospores are released whenever conditions are favorable during that time and produce the quiescent infections. Polymerase chain reaction PCR can be used to diagnose G. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.


Guignardia citricarpa will infect all types of citrus plants; however, there are some plants that are more susceptible to the pathogen than others.

Journal of Taiwan Agricultural Research, 21 4: Fungicidal control of black spot and melanose on coastal Valencia oranges in New South Wales. Leaves are susceptible up to 10 months of age. Plant Pathology, 55 2: Studies in Mycologia, 5: Studies of the formation of conidiomata, conidia and spore ooze showed that the size of conidia varied with media type, temperature and light conditions.

More information about modern web browsers can be found at http: Gazette New South Wales, 8: Epidemiology and control of citrus black spot in South Africa. This off season blooming is often more problematic with Valencia oranges when old and new crops overlap. The anamorph of the black spot fungus was first described by McAlpine and designated Phoma citricarpa McAlpine.

It is important to note that while ascospores can infect fruit, they have not yet been observed developing on fruit. They are small, reddish, irregularly shaped, and contain many pycnidia. Thus, detection and identification is currently difficult and time-consuming. In both countries the fungus was thought to have been found, but after further testing it was identified as the non-pathogenic strainGuignardia mangiferaerather than the pathogenic strain Guignardia citricarpa which causes Citrus Black Spot.

Australasian Plant Pathology In most subtropical citrus areas, leaf fall occurs just before or about the time of bloom.

Citrus black spot

Freckle spot lesions are the early form of virulent spot lesions. A loop-mediated isothermal gkignardia method for confirmation of Guignardia cirricarpa in citrus black spot lesions. Plant trash should be moved with caution if at all to avoid spreading the infectious ascospores. First report of Phyllosticta citricarpa causing citrus black spot on Citrus sinensis and C.


Two distinct Guignardia species associated with citrus in South Africa. Urea, lime, and calcium carbonate reduce the number of fungal structures and spore production. They are sent to a computer by website operators or third parties.

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Postharvest applications of fungicides are generally less effective in preventing symptom development Andrade guignarrdia al. Black spot of citrus. The lesions of hard spot generally occur on mature fruit and are several millimeters in diameter. The telemorph was described in and designated Guignardia citricarpa Kiely Kiely, Blackspot disease in Rhodesia. If there is more than one age of fruit present on the tree, it is possible for the asexual spores on the fruit to be transferred to new fruit, intensifying the disease.

Lemon and late maturing citrus such as Valencia orange are the most susceptible hosts. Australasian Plant Pathology, 10 3: Some losses to fruit drop occurred in years favourable for disease development and when fruit was held on the trees past peak maturity. The anamorph probably plays only a minor role in the disease cycle Timmer, ; Kotze, Failure of Phyllosticta citricarpa pycnidiospores to infect Eureka lemon leaf litter.

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. The authors concluded that there was insufficient information to separate the two taxa on the basis of morphological criteria Wang and Tsai, However, species-specific primers from ghignardia ITS region and other regions of the genome have been developed Sanders et al.

Fungal citrus diseases Botryosphaeriaceae.